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French and English are the official languages of the Olympic Movement. The other language used at each Olympic Games is the language of the host country or languages, if a country has more than one official language apart from French or English.
Every proclamation such as the announcement of each country during the parade of nations in the opening ceremony is spoken in these three or more languages, or the main two depending on whether the host country is an English or French speaking country: French is always spoken first, followed by an English translation, and then the dominant language of the host nation when this is not English or French.
The IOC has often been accused of being an intractable organisation, with several life members on the committee. The presidential terms of Avery Brundage and Juan Antonio Samaranch were especially controversial.
Brundage fought strongly for amateurism and against the commercialisation of the Olympic Games, even as these attitudes came to be seen as incongruous with the realities of modern sports.
The advent of state-sponsored athletes from the Eastern Bloc countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur , as it placed self-financed amateurs of Western countries at a disadvantage.
In , it was reported that several IOC members had taken gifts from members of the Salt Lake City bid committee for the hosting of the Winter Olympics.
There were soon four independent investigations underway: by the IOC, the United States Olympic Committee USOC , the Salt Lake Organizing Committee SLOC , and the United States Department of Justice DOJ.
Although nothing strictly illegal had occurred, it was felt that the acceptance of the gifts was morally dubious.
As a result of the investigation, ten members of the IOC were expelled and a further ten sanctioned. Additionally, new term and age limits were put into place for IOC membership, and fifteen former Olympic athletes were added to the committee.
Nevertheless, from sporting and business standpoints, the Olympics were one of the most successful Winter Games in history; records were set in both the broadcasting and marketing programs.
This excess revenue was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation also known as the Utah Olympic Legacy Foundation , which maintains and operates many of the surviving Olympic venues.
The precise figures are unknown since Nagano destroyed the financial records after the IOC requested that the entertainment expenditures should not be made public.
A BBC documentary entitled Panorama : Buying the Games , which aired in August , investigated the taking of bribes in the bidding process for the Summer Olympics.
He cited French president Jacques Chirac as a witness; Chirac gave guarded interviews concerning his involvement  but the allegation was never fully explored.
Turin 's Winter Olympic bid was also clouded by controversy. A prominent IOC member, Marc Hodler , closely connected to the rival bid of Sion , alleged bribery of IOC officials by members of the Turin Organising Committee.
These accusations led to a wide-ranging investigation, and also served to sour many IOC members against Sion's bid which potentially helped Turin to capture the host city nomination.
In July , the Anti-Defamation League called the continued refusal by the IOC to hold a moment of silence at the opening ceremony for the eleven Israeli athletes killed by Palestinian terrorists at the Munich Olympics , "a continuing stubborn insensitivity and callousness to the memory of the murdered Israeli athletes.
In , a group of Oxford University scholars documented high costs and cost overruns for the Games and criticised the IOC for not taking enough responsibility for controlling increasing costs.
The Olympic Games have been commercialised to various degrees since the inaugural Summer Olympics in Athens, when a number of companies paid for advertising,  including Kodak.
The IOC originally resisted funding by corporate sponsors. It was not until the retirement of IOC President Avery Brundage , in , that the IOC began to explore the potential of the television medium and the lucrative advertising markets available to them.
During the first half of the 20th century, the IOC ran on a small budget. The Summer Olympics became a watershed moment in Olympic history.
Samaranch helped to establish The Olympic Programme TOP in , in order to create an Olympic brand.
The Summer Olympics in Berlin were the first Games to be broadcast on television, though only to local audiences.
This cycle allowed the IOC to charge ever-increasing fees for those rights. Viewership increased exponentially from the s until the end of the 20th century.
This was due to the advent of satellites for broadcasting live television worldwide starting in , and the introduction of colour television in The IOC responded by making a number of changes to the Olympic programme; at the Summer Games, the gymnastics competition was expanded from seven to nine nights, and a Champions Gala was added to attract greater interest;  the events programmes were also expanded for swimming and diving, both popular sports with a broad base of television viewers.
The sale of the Olympic brand has been controversial. The argument is that the Games have become indistinguishable from any other commercialised sporting spectacle.
The IOC also takes a percentage of all sponsorship and broadcast income. The Olympic Movement uses symbols to represent the ideals embodied in the Olympic Charter.
The Olympic symbol, better known as the Olympic rings , consists of five intertwined rings and represents the unity of the five inhabited continents Africa , the Americas when considered one continent , Asia , Europe , and Oceania.
The coloured version of the rings—blue, yellow, black, green, and red—over a white field forms the Olympic flag. These colours were chosen because every nation had at least one of them on its national flag.
The flag was adopted in but flown for the first time only at the Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium.
It has since been hoisted during each celebration of the Games. The Olympic motto , Citius, Altius, Fortius , a Latin expression meaning "Faster, Higher, Stronger" was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin in and has been official since The motto was coined by Coubertin's friend, the Dominican priest Henri Didon OP, for a Paris youth gathering of Coubertin's Olympic ideals are expressed in the Olympic creed :.
The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle.
The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well. Months before each Games, the Olympic Flame is lit at the Temple of Hera in Olympia in a ceremony that reflects ancient Greek rituals.
A female performer, acting as a priestess joined by ten female performers as Vestal Virgins , ignites a torch by placing it inside a parabolic mirror which focuses the sun's rays; she then lights the torch of the first relay bearer, thus initiating the Olympic torch relay that will carry the flame to the host city's Olympic stadium, where it plays an important role in the opening ceremony.
The Olympic mascot , an animal or human figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country, was introduced in It has played an important part of the Games' identity promotion since the Summer Olympics , when the Soviet bear cub Misha reached international stardom.
The mascot of the Summer Olympics in London was named Wenlock after the town of Much Wenlock in Shropshire. Much Wenlock still hosts the Wenlock Olympian Games, which were an inspiration to Pierre de Coubertin for the Olympic Games.
As mandated by the Olympic Charter , various elements frame the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games. This ceremony takes place before the events have occurred.
After the artistic portion of the ceremony, the athletes parade into the stadium grouped by nation. Greece is traditionally the first nation to enter in order to honour the origins of the Olympics.
Nations then enter the stadium alphabetically according to the host country's chosen language, with the host country's athletes being the last to enter.
During the Summer Olympics , which was hosted in Athens, Greece , the Greek flag entered the stadium first, while the Greek delegation entered last.
Speeches are given, formally opening the Games. Finally, the Olympic torch is brought into the stadium and passed on until it reaches the final torch carrier, often a successful Olympic athlete from the host nation, who lights the Olympic flame in the stadium's cauldron.
The closing ceremony of the Olympic Games takes place after all sporting events have concluded. Flag-bearers from each participating country enter the stadium, followed by the athletes who enter together, without any national distinction.
As is customary, the last medal presentation of the Games is held as part of the closing ceremony. Typically, the marathon medals are presented at the Summer Olympics,   while the cross-country skiing mass start medals are awarded at the Winter Olympics.
A medal ceremony is held after the conclusion of each Olympic event. The winner, and the second- and third-place competitors or teams, stand on top of a three-tiered rostrum to be awarded their respective medals by a member of the IOC.
The Olympic Games programme consists of 35 sports, 30 disciplines and events. For example, wrestling is a Summer Olympic sport, comprising two disciplines: Greco-Roman and Freestyle.
It is further broken down into fourteen events for men and four events for women, each representing a different weight class.
Cross-country skiing , figure skating , ice hockey , Nordic combined , ski jumping , and speed skating have been featured at every Winter Olympics programme since its inception in Current Olympic sports, like badminton , basketball , and volleyball , first appeared on the programme as demonstration sports , and were later promoted to full Olympic sports.
Some sports that were featured in earlier Games were later dropped from the programme. Olympic sports are governed by international sports federations IFs recognised by the IOC as the global supervisors of those sports.
There are 35 federations represented at the IOC. These sports are not considered Olympic sports, but they can be promoted to this status during a programme revision that occurs in the first IOC session following a celebration of the Olympic Games.
In October and November , the IOC established an Olympic Programme Commission, which was tasked with reviewing the sports on the Olympic programme and all non-Olympic recognised sports.
The goal was to apply a systematic approach to establishing the Olympic programme for each celebration of the Games. Of the five sports recommended for inclusion only two were selected as finalists: karate and squash.
The th IOC Session , in , limited the Summer Games programme to a maximum of 28 sports, events, and 10, athletes.
Since there was no agreement in the promotion of two other sports, the programme featured just 26 sports. The ethos of the aristocracy as exemplified in the English public school greatly influenced Pierre de Coubertin.
In this ethos, a gentleman was one who became an all-rounder, not the best at one specific thing. There was also a prevailing concept of fairness, in which practising or training was considered tantamount to cheating.
The exclusion of professionals caused several controversies throughout the history of the modern Olympics. The Olympic pentathlon and decathlon champion Jim Thorpe was stripped of his medals when it was discovered that he had played semi-professional baseball before the Olympics.
His medals were posthumously restored by the IOC in on compassionate grounds. The advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc countries eroded the ideology of the pure amateur , as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage.
The Soviet Union entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but all of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full-time basis.
As a result, the Olympics shifted away from amateurism , as envisioned by Pierre de Coubertin , to allowing participation of professional athletes ,  but only in the s, after the collapse of the Soviet Union and its influence within the International Olympic Committee.
Near the end of the s, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association CAHA felt their amateur players could no longer be competitive against the Soviet team's full-time athletes and the other constantly improving European teams.
They pushed for the ability to use players from professional leagues but met opposition from the IIHF and IOC. At the IIHF Congress in , the IIHF decided to allow Canada to use nine non-NHL professional hockey players  at the World Championships in Montreal and Winnipeg , Manitoba , Canada.
In , the IIHF agreed to allow "open competition" between all players in the World Championships. However, NHL players were still not allowed to play in the Olympics until , because of the IOC's amateur-only policy.
Greece , Australia , France , and United Kingdom are the only countries to be represented at every Olympic Games since their inception in While countries sometimes miss an Olympics due to a lack of qualified athletes, some choose to boycott a celebration of the Games for various reasons.
The Olympic Council of Ireland boycotted the Berlin Games , because the IOC insisted its team needed to be restricted to the Irish Free State rather than representing the entire island of Ireland.
There were three boycotts of the Melbourne Olympics : the Netherlands , Spain , and Switzerland refused to attend because of the repression of the Hungarian uprising by the Soviet Union , but did send an equestrian delegation to Stockholm; Cambodia , Egypt , Iraq , and Lebanon boycotted the Games because of the Suez Crisis ; and the People's Republic of China boycotted the Games due to the participation of the Republic of China , composed of athletes coming from Taiwan.
In and a large number of African countries threatened the IOC with a boycott to force them to ban South Africa and Rhodesia , because of their segregationist rule.
New Zealand was also one of the African boycott targets, because its national rugby union team had toured apartheid -ruled South Africa.
The IOC conceded in the first two cases, but refused to ban New Zealand on the grounds that rugby was not an Olympic sport. The Republic of China Taiwan was excluded from the Games by order of Pierre Elliott Trudeau , the prime minister of Canada.
Trudeau's action was widely condemned as having brought shame on Canada for having succumbed to political pressure to keep the Chinese delegation from competing under its name.
In and , the Cold War opponents boycotted each other's Games. The United States and sixty-five other countries boycotted the Moscow Olympics in because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
This boycott reduced the number of nations participating to 80, the lowest number since Although a boycott led by the Soviet Union depleted the field in certain sports, National Olympic Committees took part, which was a record at the time.
When the Romanian athletes entered during the opening ceremonies, they received a standing ovation from the spectators, which comprised mostly U. The boycotting nations of the Eastern Bloc staged their own alternate event, the Friendship Games , in July and August.
There had been growing calls for boycotts of Chinese goods and the Olympics in Beijing in protest of China's human rights record , and in response to Tibetan disturbances.
Ultimately, no nation supported a boycott. The Olympic Games have been used as a platform to promote political ideologies almost from its inception.
Nazi Germany wished to portray the National Socialist Party as benevolent and peace-loving when they hosted the Games , though they used the Games to display Aryan superiority.
Instead, starting in , the Soviets organised an international sports event called Spartakiads. During the interwar period of the s and s, communist and socialist organisations in several countries, including the United States, attempted to counter what they called the "bourgeois" Olympics with the Workers Olympics.
Individual athletes have also used the Olympic stage to promote their own political agenda. The second-place finisher, Peter Norman of Australia, wore an Olympic Project for Human Rights badge in support of Smith and Carlos.
In response to the protest, IOC president Avery Brundage ordered Smith and Carlos suspended from the US team and banned from the Olympic Village.
When the US Olympic Committee refused, Brundage threatened to ban the entire US track team. This threat led to the expulsion of the two athletes from the Games.
Currently, the government of Iran has taken steps to avoid any competition between its athletes and those from Israel.
An Iranian judoka , Arash Miresmaeili , did not compete in a match against an Israeli during the Summer Olympics.
He was officially cleared of intentionally avoiding the bout, but his receipt of the prize money raised suspicion. In the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes began using drugs to improve their athletic abilities.
For example, in , Thomas Hicks , a gold medallist in the marathon, was given strychnine by his coach at the time, taking different substances was allowed, as there was no data regarding the effect of these substances on a body of an athlete.
A Danish cyclist, Knud Enemark Jensen , fell from his bicycle and later died. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamines.
According to British journalist Andrew Jennings , a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the International Olympic Committee to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts".
The Moscow Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games. Documents obtained in revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements.
Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping programme prior to the Summer Olympics.
The first Olympic athlete to test positive for the use of performance-enhancing drugs was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall , a Swedish pentathlete at the Summer Olympics , who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use.
In the IOC formed the World Anti-Doping Agency WADA in an effort to systematise the research and detection of performance-enhancing drugs.
There was a sharp increase in positive drug tests at the Summer Olympics and Winter Olympics due to improved testing conditions.
Several medallists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing from post-Soviet states were disqualified because of doping offences.
The IOC-established drug testing regimen now known as the Olympic Standard has set the worldwide benchmark that other sporting federations attempt to emulate.
Both urine and blood tests were used to detect banned substances. Prior to the Games athletes tested positive for banned substances and were not allowed to compete.
Doping in Russian sports has a systemic nature. Russia has had 44 Olympic medals stripped for doping violations — the most of any country, more than three times the number of the runner-up, and more than a quarter of the global total.
From to , more than a thousand Russian competitors in various sports, including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports, benefited from a cover-up.
In December , Russia was banned for four years from all major sporting events for systematic doping and lying to WADA. The ban meant that Russian athletes would only be allowed to compete under the Olympic flag after passing anti-doping tests.
Instead of banning Russia from sporting events, the ruling allowed Russia to participate at the Olympics and other international events, but for a period of two years, the team cannot use the Russian name, flag, or anthem and must present themselves as "Neutral Athlete" or "Neutral Team".
Women were first allowed to compete at the Summer Olympics in Paris, but at the Summer Olympics 35 countries were still only fielding all-male delegations.
In , Bahrain sent two women competitors for the first time: Fatema Hameed Gerashi and Mariam Mohamed Hadi Al Hilli.
Both athletes were from Dubai's ruling family. By , only three countries had never sent female athletes to the Games: Brunei , Saudi Arabia , and Qatar.
Brunei had taken part in only three celebrations of the Games, sending a single athlete on each occasion, but Saudi Arabia and Qatar had been competing regularly with all-male teams.
In , the International Olympic Committee announced it would "press" these countries to enable and facilitate the participation of women for the Summer Olympics in London.
Anita DeFrantz , chair of the IOC's Women and Sports Commission, suggested that countries be barred if they prevented women from competing.
Shortly thereafter, the Qatar Olympic Committee announced that it "hoped to send up to four female athletes in shooting and fencing " to the Summer Games.
In , Ali Al-Ahmed , director of the Institute for Gulf Affairs , likewise called for Saudi Arabia to be barred from the Games, describing its ban on women athletes as a violation of the International Olympic Committee charter.
He noted: "For the last 15 years, many international nongovernmental organisations worldwide have been trying to lobby the IOC for better enforcement of its own laws banning gender discrimination.
While their efforts did result in increasing numbers of women Olympians, the IOC has been reluctant to take a strong position and threaten the discriminating countries with suspension or expulsion.
Should Saudi Arabia At the Summer Olympics, every participating nation included female athletes for the first time in Olympic history.
The only sport on the Olympic programme that features men and women competing together is the equestrian disciplines. There is no "Women's Eventing", or 'Men's Dressage'.
As of , there were still more medal events for men than women. With the addition of women's boxing to the programme in the Summer Olympics, however, female athletes were able to compete in all the same sports as men.
Three Olympiads had to pass without a celebration of the Games because of war: the Games were cancelled because of World War I , and the summer and winter games of and were cancelled because of World War II.
The Russo-Georgian War between Georgia and Russia erupted on the opening day of the Summer Olympics in Beijing. Both President Bush and Prime Minister Putin were attending the Olympics at that time and spoke together about the conflict at a luncheon hosted by Chinese president Hu Jintao.
Terrorism most directly affected the Olympic Games in When the Summer Games were held in Munich , Germany, eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September in what is now known as the Munich massacre.
The terrorists killed two of the athletes soon after they had taken them hostage and killed the other nine during a failed liberation attempt. A German police officer and five terrorists also perished.
Terrorism affected the last two Olympic Games held in the United States. During the Summer Olympics in in Atlanta, Georgia , a bomb was detonated at the Centennial Olympic Park , which killed two and injured others.
The bomb was set by Eric Rudolph , an American domestic terrorist , who is currently serving a life sentence for the bombing.
The opening ceremonies of the Games featured symbols of the day's events. They included the flag that flew at Ground Zero and honour guards of NYPD and FDNY members.
The Olympic Charter requires that an athlete be a national of the country for which they compete. Dual nationals may compete for either country, as long as three years have passed since the competitor competed for the former country.
However, if the NOCs and IF involved agree, then the IOC Executive Board may reduce or cancel this period.
If an athlete gains a new or second nationality, then they do not need to wait any designated amount of time before participating for the new or second nation.
The IOC is only concerned with issues of citizenship and nationality after individual nations have granted citizenship to athletes.
Athletes will sometimes become citizens of a different nation so they are able to compete in the Olympics. This is often because they are drawn to sponsorships or training facilities.
It could also be because an athlete is unable to qualify from within their original country. In preparation for the Winter Games in Sochi Russian Olympic Committee naturalised a Korean-born short-track speed-skater Ahn Hyun-soo and an American-born snowboarder Vic Wild.
They won a total of five golds and one bronze in Sochi. One of the most famous cases of changing nationality for the Olympics was Zola Budd , a South African runner who emigrated to the United Kingdom because there was an apartheid-era ban on the Olympics in South Africa.
Budd was eligible for British citizenship because her grandfather was born in Britain, but British citizens accused the government of expediting the citizenship process for her.
Other notable examples include Kenyan runner Bernard Lagat , who became a United States citizen in May The Kenyan constitution required that one renounce their Kenyan citizenship when they became a citizen of another nation.
Lagat competed for Kenya in the Athens Olympics even though he had already become a United States citizen. According to Kenya, he was no longer a Kenyan citizen, jeopardising his silver medal.
Lagat said he started the citizenship process in late and did not expect to become an American citizen until after the Athens games.
He was allowed to keep his medal by the IOC. Medals are awarded to the athletes or teams who place first, second, or third in each event.
The winners receive gold medals, which were solid gold until , later made of gilded silver, and now gold-plated silver. However, every gold medal must contain at least six grams of pure gold.
In events contested by a single-elimination tournament most notably boxing , third place might not be determined and the losers of both semi-finals each receive a bronze medal.
At the Olympics , only the winner and runner-up of each event received medals—silver for first and bronze for second. The current three-medal format was introduced at the Olympics.
At the Summer Olympics in Athens, the gold, silver, and bronze medal winners were also presented with olive wreaths.
As of the Games in Rio de Janeiro, all of the current NOCs and 19 obsolete NOCs have participated in at least one edition of the Summer Olympics.
Competitors from Australia , France , [A] Great Britain , [B] Greece , and Switzerland [C] have competed in all 28 Summer Olympics.
Athletes competing under the Olympic flag, Mixed Teams and the Refugee Team have competed at six Summer Games. A total of NOCs of the current NOCs and nine obsolete NOCs have participated in at least one edition of the Winter Olympics.
Competitors from 14 nations Austria , Canada , Czech Republic , Finland , France , Great Britain , Hungary , Italy , Norway , Poland , Slovakia , Sweden , Switzerland , and the United States have participated in all 23 Winter Games to date.
The host city for an Olympic Games is usually chosen seven to eight years ahead of their celebration. The prospective host city applies to its country's National Olympic Committee; if more than one city from the same country submits a proposal to its NOC, the national committee typically holds an internal selection, since only one city per NOC can be presented to the International Olympic Committee for consideration.
Once the deadline for submission of proposals by the NOCs is reached, the first phase Application begins with the applicant cities asked to complete a questionnaire regarding several key criteria related to the organisation of the Olympic Games.
On the basis of this technical evaluation, the IOC Executive Board selects the applicants that will proceed to the candidature stage. Once the candidate cities are selected, they must submit to the IOC a bigger and more detailed presentation of their project as part of a candidature file.
Each city is thoroughly analysed by an evaluation commission. This commission will also visit the candidate cities, interviewing local officials and inspecting prospective venue sites, and submit a report on its findings one month prior to the IOC's final decision.
During the interview process the candidate city must also guarantee that it will be able to fund the Games.
The IOC members gathered in the Session have the final vote on the host city. Once elected, the host city bid committee together with the NOC of the respective country signs a Host City Contract with the IOC, officially becoming an Olympic host nation and host city.
By , the Olympic Games will have been hosted by 44 cities in 23 countries. The Games in Rio de Janeiro were the first Olympics for a South American country.
No bids from countries in Africa have succeeded. The United States hosted four Summer Games, more than any other nation. The British capital London holds the distinction of hosting three Olympic Games, all Summer, more than any other city.
Paris, which previously hosted in and , is due to host the Summer Games for a third time in , and Los Angeles, which previously hosted in and , is due to host the Summer Games for a third time in The other nations hosting the Summer Games at least twice are Germany, Australia, France and Greece.
The other cities hosting the Summer Games at least twice are Los Angeles, Paris and Athens. With the Summer Olympics is due to held in Tokyo, which will be the first Asian city to host the Olympics for the second time.
The United States hosted four Winter Games, more than any other nation. The other nations hosting multiple Winter Games are France with three, while Switzerland, Austria, Norway, Japan, Canada and Italy have hosted twice.
Among host cities, Lake Placid , Innsbruck and St. Moritz have played host to the Winter Olympic Games more than once, each holding that honour twice.
The most recent Winter Games were held in Pyeongchang in , South Korea 's first Winter Olympics and second Olympics overall after the Summer Olympics in Seoul.
Beijing is due to host the Winter Olympics , which will make it the first city to host both the Summer and Winter Games.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the modern games in general. For the most recent games in Pyeongchang, South Korea, see Winter Olympics.
For the upcoming games in Tokyo, Japan, see Summer Olympics. For the ancient Greek games, see Ancient Olympic Games. For other uses, see Olympic disambiguation.
Major international sport event. Main article: Ancient Olympic Games. See also: List of Olympic Games host cities. Main article: Summer Olympics.
Main article: Summer Olympic Games. Main article: Winter Olympic Games. Main article: Paralympic Games. Main article: Youth Olympic Games.
See also: Cost of the Olympic Games. Main article: Olympic symbols. Main article: Olympic Games ceremony. Main article: Olympic sports.
Further information: Amateur sports. Main article: Olympic Games scandals and controversies. Main article: List of Olympic Games boycotts.
Main article: Use of performance-enhancing drugs in the Olympic Games. Main article: Participation of women in the Olympics.
Further information: Lists of Olympic medalists and List of multiple Olympic gold medalists. Main article: List of participating nations at the Summer Olympic Games.
Main article: List of participating nations at the Winter Olympic Games. Main article: List of Olympic Games host cities. See also: List of Olympic medals by host nation.
Olympic Games portal. All-time Olympic Games medal table Art competitions at the Summer Olympics List of multi-sport events Olympic Cup and Olympic Order Olympic Day Run Pierre de Coubertin medal Global Association of International Sports Federations.
No athletes from modern Great Britain took part. The British Olympic Association was not founded until International Olympic Committee.
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