Romanian Gods And Goddesses

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Romanian Gods And Goddesses

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Romanian Gods And Goddesses

To that end, the month of March named after him, derived from Latin Martius was reserved for the beginning of military campaigns, while also corresponding to many of the festivals of Mars.

Furthermore, the altar of Mars in Campus Martius Field of Mars was uniquely dedicated to the god of war by the seemingly peace-loving Numa , the legendary second king of Rome.

All of these cultural factors make Mars one of the exclusive ancient Roman gods who possibly had no parallel in the proximate Greek culture in spite of sharing some qualities with Ares.

The ancient Roman deity of beauty, love, desire, and sex, Venus is often perceived as the equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite.

However, like in the case of some of the earlier mentioned Roman gods, Venus as a divine entity possibly epitomized more aspects than her Greek counterpart — since she was also regarded as the goddess of victory and fertility and possibly even prostitution.

For example, her illicit love affair with Mars produced the twins Timor Phobos in Greek and Metus Deimos in Greek , the personifications of fear and terror respectively, Concordia Harmonia in Greek , the goddess of harmony and concord, and Cupids Erotes in Greek , the famed winged deities of love.

Hailed as one of the most important of Olympian deities when it came to the pantheons of both ancient Greek and Roman gods, Apollo , the archetype of the beardless, youthful being kouros , was considered as the divine entity of light, music, prophecy, poetry, medicine and even archery.

Now interestingly enough, Apollo can be counted among the rare Roman gods who had directly originated from the Greek mythology thus having no Roman equivalent , with the cult centers of the entity in Delphi and Delos being in existence since 8th century BC.

However historically, it was Augustus who encouraged the worship of Apollo as one of the major Roman gods, especially after his victory at the Battle of Actium circa 31 BC that fought near the sanctuary of the deity.

A female deity characterizing the hunt, wildlands, nature, and the moon among the ancient Roman gods, Diana was also regarded as an entity who was antithetically the virgin goddess of childbirth and women.

In essence, she belonged to the triad of female Roman goddesses along with Minerva and Vesta who were maidens; and the mythical narrative often portrayed her as the twin sister of Apollo and daughter of Jupiter.

And while she is often equated to her Greek counterpart Artemis , the origins of Diana probably harked back to an indigenous Italic or older Indo-European entity.

Lucina is identified with it, which is why in our country they invoke Juno Lucina in childbirth, just as the Greeks call on Diana the Light-bearer.

She is invoked at childbirth because children are born occasionally after seven, or usually after nine, lunar revolutions….

On occasions, she was also considered as one of the Roman gods of the dark world of the dead, thus being the equivalent of Greek goddess Hecate.

As for his attributes, Vulcan was considered as the Roman god of fire including volcanoes , metallurgy, and forges.

Now interestingly enough, the oldest sanctuary of Vulcan, known as the Vulcanal or Volcanal was probably situated at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, and this site revealed a Greek pottery fragment dated to circa 6th century BC that possibly depicted Hephaestus or Hephaistos , the Greek god of fire and metalworking.

In essence, Vulcan was probably one of the earlier Roman gods who was equated to an ancient Greek counterpart.

At the same time, Vulcan also matched the aspects of Sethlans , an ancient Etruscan god. In any case, the Romans celebrated Vulcanalia , the festival of Vulcan, at a time in the year in August when the crops and grains had the greatest chance of catching fire from the heat.

Roman Gods: Ceres Ceres was the goddess of agriculture. The sister of Vesta, Pluto, Neptune and Jupiter. The mother of Proserpina by Jupiter who was abducted by Pluto and carried off into the Underworld.

Her name originates from the Latin word 'Cerealis' meaning "of grain" from which we derive the modern word 'cereal'.

Roman Gods: Vulcan Vulcan was the name of the Roman god of fire and metal-working and the son of Jupiter and Juno.

His name derives from the Latin word 'Vulcanus' meaning "fire, flames, volcano". Vulcan was highly honored by the Romans who debated the most important issues of the republic in his temple.

Roman Gods: Pluto Pluto was the Roman god of the Underworld and the brother of Jupiter, Vesta, Neptune and Ceres. Animal Sacrifices were made to Pluto at the Roman Colosseum where a marble altar was set in the middle of the arena, complete with a burning fire.

As the god of Death the name of Pluto was used in Roman curse tablets. Roman Gods: Diana Diana was the name of the goddess of the hunt and the moon.

She was the daughter of Jupiter and Latona and the twin sister of Apollo. As an emblem of chastity she was especially venerated by young maidens, they sacrificed their hair to her before marrying.

Her name was first known as Diviana meaning "to shine". Roman Gods: Apollo Apollo was the name of the god of the sun, music, healing, archery and prophecy.

The son of Jupiter and Latona, twin of Diana. As the the source of harmony he was called Liber Pater and carried a shield to show he was the protector of mankind, and their preserver in health and safety.

Roman Gods: Cupid Cupid was the name of the Roman god of erotic love and beauty.. His name derives from the Latin word 'Cupido' meaning "desire, love".

Cupid had two different types of arrows which explains this Roman god's association with both romantic and erotic love. Others think that they used to live alongside humans on the earth, but Moses , seeing his people oppressed by them, split the waters and, after he and his people had retreated to safety, poured the waters back onto them, sending them to their current abode.

For celebrating the souls of dead relatives or friends, Romanians from above mentioned counties prepare festive meals and offer them, in the cemetery, nearby the tombs, after the religious mass and benediction, to all who wished to commemorate and pay their respects to the dead.

They cheer up in memory of the deceased. The most prominent symbol associated with the End Times is that of the earthquake.

Waters overflowing and mountains collapsing are both linked to these earthquakes, which are mainly caused by lack of faith, which accelerates the crumbling of the World Pillars.

Others attribute the earthquakes to the earth which is alive, and can therefore feel realising the wicked ways of humans, and trembling in fright.

Other rare natural phenomena such as Eclipses or Comets were seen as a sign of impending doom. If these warnings should fail, God will initiate the End of the World.

Such imagery as a darkened sun , a bleeding moon and falling stars are associated with the beginning of the End Times. Three saints usually in the persons of Enoch , John and Elijah are said to come to earth to unveil the Devil's attempts to destroy the world, whereupon they shall be killed by decapitation.

The sky and the earth will be set alight and the earth will be purged, so that its Creator may descend upon it. The 12 winds are said to sweep up the ashes of people and gather them in the valley of Safed , where the Last Judgement shall be done.

Sources form Moldova and Bucovina also speak of a great army led by the emperor Constantine , which will conquer all the world's states, and kill everyone save for a few pure ones, which will then repopulate the earth.

In another instance, should this army not come, God shall burn the earth as described and bring the Blajini to live there. In another version, true to the succession of Gods mentioned earlier s.

A not-so-widespread belief is that of a definitive destruction of the earth, whereupon God and the Devil shall divide the souls of the dead among themselves and retire to the moon, who is considered to have been made in the image of the earth to serve a place of retreat after the destruction of the earth.

Strong folk traditions have survived to this day due to the rural character of the Romanian communities, which has resulted in an exceptionally vital and creative traditional culture.

Romania's rich folk traditions have been nourished by many sources, some of which predate the Roman occupation. Traditional folk arts include wood carving, ceramics, weaving and embroidery of costumes, household decorations, dance, and richly varied folk music.

Ethnographers have tried to collect in the last two centuries as many elements as possible: the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Romanian Academy are currently the main institutions which systematically organise the data and continue the research.

Wood used to be the main construction material, and heavily ornamented wooden objects were common in old houses.

Linen was the most common material for clothing, combined with wool during the winter or colder periods. These are embroidered with traditional motifs that vary from region to region.

Black is the most common colour used, but red and blue are predominant in certain areas. Women also wore a white skirt and a shirt with a vest. Music and dance represent a lively part of the Romanian folklore and there are a great variety of musical genres and dances.

Party music is very lively and shows both Balkan and Hungarian influences. Sentimental music, however, is the most valued, and Romanians consider their doina a sad song either about one's home or about love, composed like an epic ballad unique in the world.

Romanians have had, from time immemorial, a myriad of customs, tales and poems about love, faith, kings, princesses, and witches.

Ethnologists, poets, writers and historians have tried in recent centuries to collect and to preserve tales, poems, ballads and have tried to describe as well as possible the customs and habits related to different events and times of year.

Other customs are presumably of pre-Christian pagan origin, like the Paparuda rain enchanting custom in the summer, or the masked folk theatre or Ursul the bear and Capra the goat in winter.

On coins, calendars, and other inscriptions, Mercury, Saturn, Silvanus , Fons , Serapis , Sabazius , Apollo, and the Genius are also found as Invictus.

Cicero considers it a normal epithet for Jupiter, in regard to whom it is probably a synonym for Omnipotens. It is also used in the Mithraic mysteries.

Mater "Mother" was an honorific that respected a goddess's maternal authority and functions, and not necessarily "motherhood" per se.

Early examples included Terra Mater Mother Earth and the Mater Larum Mother of the Lares. Vesta , a goddess of chastity usually conceived of as a virgin, was honored as Mater.

A goddess known as Stata Mater was a compital deity credited with preventing fires in the city. From the middle Imperial era, the reigning Empress becomes Mater castrorum et senatus et patriae , the symbolic Mother of military camps, the senate , and the fatherland.

The Gallic and Germanic cavalry auxilia of the Roman Imperial army regularly set up altars to the "Mothers of the Field" Campestres , from campus , "field," with the title Matres or Matronae.

Gods were called Pater "Father" to signify their preeminence and paternal care, and the filial respect owed to them. Pater was found as an epithet of Dis , Jupiter , Mars , and Liber , among others.

Some Roman literary sources accord the same title to Maia and other goddesses. Even in invocations , which generally required precise naming, the Romans sometimes spoke of gods as groups or collectives rather than naming them as individuals.

Some groups, such as the Camenae and Parcae , were thought of as a limited number of individual deities, even though the number of these might not be given consistently in all periods and all texts.

The following groups, however, are numberless collectives. The di indigetes were thought by Georg Wissowa to be Rome's indigenous deities, in contrast to the di novensides or novensiles , "newcomer gods".

No ancient source, however, poses this dichotomy, which is not generally accepted among scholars of the 21st century.

The meaning of the epithet indiges singular has no scholarly consensus, and noven may mean "nine" novem rather than "new". A lectisternium is a banquet for the gods, at which they appear as images seated on couches, as if present and participating.

In describing the lectisternium of the Twelve Great gods in BC, the Augustan historian Livy places the deities in gender-balanced pairs: [13].

Divine male-female complements such as these, as well as the anthropomorphic influence of Greek mythology, contributed to a tendency in Latin literature to represent the gods as "married" couples or as in the case of Venus and Mars lovers.

Varro uses the name Dii Consentes for twelve deities whose gilded images stood in the forum. These were also placed in six male-female pairs.

A fragment from Ennius , within whose lifetime the lectisternium occurred, lists the same twelve deities by name, though in a different order from that of Livy: Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, Mercurius, Jove, Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo.

The Dii Consentes are sometimes seen as the Roman equivalent of the Greek Olympians. The meaning of Consentes is subject to interpretation, but is usually taken to mean that they form a council or consensus of deities.

Varro [18] gives a list of twenty principal gods of Roman religion:. Varro, who was himself of Sabine origin, gives a list of Sabine gods who were adopted by the Romans:.

Elsewhere, Varro claims Sol Indiges , who had a sacred grove at Lavinium , as Sabine but at the same time equates him with Apollo. Saturn, for instance, can be said to have another origin here, and so too Diana.

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